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Typical Josephson junctions consist of two real- space superconductors superfluids coupled through a weak tunneling barrier. Here we propose a momentum-space Josephson junction in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate, where states with two different momenta are coupled through Raman-assisted tunneling. We show that Josephson currents can be induced not only by applying the equivalent of "voltages," but also by tuning tunneling phases.
Such tunneling-phase-driven Josephson junctions in momentum space are characterized through both full mean field analysis and a concise two-level model, demonstrating the important role of interactions between atoms. Our scheme provides a platform for experimentally realizing momentum-space Josephson junctions and exploring their applications in quantum-mechanical circuits.
Origins Space Telescope. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the s. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between and Cost Modeling for Space Telescope.
Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments.
This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly OTA. These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. The results are compared with previously published models.
Seismic Imager Space Telescope. A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager GSI , a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves.
Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves.
GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 22 on average earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one 2 on average earthquake of magnitude larger than 7.
A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning.
Building the Hubble Space Telescope. The HST optical system is described and illustrated. The financial and policy issues related to the development of the HST are considered. The actual construction of the HST optical telescope is examined. Also, consideration is given to the plans for the HST launch. Space Telescope Control System science user operations. The Space Telescope science users will have a flexible and efficient means of accessing the capabilities provided by the ST Pointing Control System, particularly with respect to managing the overal acquisition and pointing functions.
To permit user control of these system functions - such as vehicle scanning, tracking, offset pointing, high gain antenna pointing, solar array pointing and momentum management - a set of special instructions called 'constructs' is used in conjuction with command data packets.
This paper discusses the user-vehicle interface and introduces typical operational scenarios. Scientific management of Space Telescope. A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope , the inception of which began in , when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope.
Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions.
Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in and still continues today. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment. The Space Telescope ST represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle.
It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more.
Table of contents
Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics. Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space -based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe.
This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations.
More information about Spitzer can be found at http: Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes. Ground-based astronomy, in the years since Galileo's telescope , has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band s to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro Momentum management strategy during Space Station buildup.
The use of momentum storage devices to control effectors for Space Station attitude control throughout the buildup sequence is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of providing satisfactory management of momentum storage effectors throughout buildup while experiencing variable torque loading. Continuous and discrete control strategies are compared and the effects of alternative control moment gyro strategies on peak momentum storage requirements and on commanded maneuver characteristics are described.
Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between and The gluon propagator in momentum space. Bernard, C. Louis, MO United States. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.
Washington Univ. New York Univ. Brookhaven National Lab. Physics Dept. Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space. The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space.
Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors.
Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes. Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments.
However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes , this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.
The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST. Double-slit experiment in momentum space. Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths.
Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space , realized in the free- space elastic scattering of vortex electrons. We show that this process proceeds along two paths in momentum space , which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the plane-wave amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present-day technology.
We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes. Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades.
They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly . Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable  and multi-variable  parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques.
Parametric cost models for space telescopes. Longitudinal momentum distributions in transverse coordinate space. We take the phenomenological light-front quark-diquark model proposed by Gutsche et. Electron--molecule scattering in momentum space.
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We examine the Fourier transform of the Schroedinger equation for electron--molecule scattering, treated as potential scattering from a multicenter distribution of charged fixed in space. When the angle theta between R,the internuclear vector of a diatomic target, and q, the momentum transfer, is held fixed during the collision, then the directions of incidence and scattering are fixed relative to R. The process is then described as having a dynamical dependence on the magnitude of q, q, from which the scattering angle is determined, and a parametric dependence on q's direction relative to R.
This approximation is used routinely at high energies in the calculation of the Born amplitude. Fixed--nuclei coordinate-- space studies suggest that this approximation can be extended to low energies, provided the amplitude is taken from the solution of the integral equation of momentum space rather than from its inhomogeneity, proportional to the Born amplitude. We constrain R to be in the same direction relative to q', a virtual momentum transfer belonging to the kernel, as it is to q. The angular distribution in the static approximation is also calculated at an incident energy close to 7 eV, where exchange is relatively unimportant.
This result is in reasonably good agreement with that of R matrix theory in the static--exchange approximation. The extension of the theory to treat exchange is formulated and discussed. Also its extension to treat more complicated molecular targets is discussed. Relativistic meson spectroscopy in momentum space. In this paper a relativistic constituent-quark model based on the Ruijgrok--de Groot formalism is presented. The quark model is not defined in configuration space , but in momentum space.
The complete meson spectrum, with the exception of the self-conjugate light unflavored mesons, is calculated. The potential used consists of a one-gluon exchange OGE part and a confining part. For the confining part a relativistic generalization of the linear plus constant potential was used, which is well defined in momentum space without introducing any singularities. For the OGE part several potentials were investigated.
Retardations were included at all places. By the use of a fitting procedure involving 52 well-established mesons, but results were obtained for a potential consisting of a purely vector Richardson potential and a purely scalar confining potential. Reasonable results were also obtained for a modified Richardson potential. Anderson localization and momentum-space entanglement. To assess the nature of the wave function, we follow a recent proposal to study momentum-space entanglement. We analyze the reasons for its failure, concluding that the much desired generalization to higher dimensions may be problematic.
Hubble Space Telescope via the Web. Future developments on STEIS are expected to include larger amounts of hypertext, especially HST images and educational material of interest to students, educators, and the general public, and the ability to query proposal status. The FOC reflects light down one of two optical pathways.
The light enters a detector after passing through filters or through devices that can block out light from bright objects. Light from bright objects is blocked out to enable the FOC to see background images. The detector intensifies the image, then records it much like a television camera. For faint objects, images can be built up over long exposure times. The total image is translated into digital data, transmitted to Earth, and then reconstructed.
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The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space , astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes , perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years.
The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The main difference from classical X-ray space telescopes in wide use is the very large field of view while the use of optics results in higher efficiency if compared with detectors without optics.
Recent innovative technologies have enabled to design, to develop and to test first prototypes. They will provide deep sensitive survey of the sky in X-rays for the first time which is essential for both long-term monitoring of celestial high-energy sources as well as in understanding transient phenomena. The technology is now ready for applications in space. Destiny is a 1. Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.
Hubble Space Telescope: Today the HST Archives contain more than astronomical observations. More than 13 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published: Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership.
Deployable reflector configurations. Both the theoretical reasons for considering a non-circular format for the Large Deployable Reflector, and a potentially realizable concept for such a device, are discussed. The optimum systems for diffraction limited telescopes with incoherent detection have either a single filled aperture, or two such apertures as an interferometer to synthesize a larger aperture.
For a single aperture of limited area, a reflector in the form of a slot can be used to give increased angular resolution. It is shown how a 20 x 8 meter telescope can be configured to fit the Space Shuttle bay, and deployed with relatively simple operations. The relationship between the sunshield design and the inclination of the orbit is discussed. Space Telescope Pointing Control System software. The Space Telescope Pointing Control System software is in the advanced development stage, having been tested on both the airbearing and the static simulator.
The overall structure of the software is discussed, along with timing and sizing evaluations. The interaction between the controls analysts and software designer is described. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space. We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space.
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Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results.
In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other.
In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper. We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity.
The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. Orbital angular momentum in phase space.
Research highlights: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular- momentum discreteness. Momentum and angular momentum in the H- space of asymptotically flat, Einstein-Maxwell space -time. New definitions are proposed for the momentum and angular momentum of Einstein-Maxwell fields that overcome the deficiencies of earlier definitions of these terms and are appropriate to the new H- space formulations of space -time.
The transformations between good cuts then correspond to the translations and Lorentz transformations at points in H- space. For the special case of Robinson-Trautman type II space -times, it is shown that the definitions of momentum and angular momentum yield previously published results. For over twenty years, scientists, engineers, technicians, and other personnel have been working on the next generation space telescope. This combination will allow JWST to collect data and take images of light having traveled over Additional information will be presented regarding space simulation testing down to a cool 20 degrees Kelvin [ degrees Fahrenheit] that will occur at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, and more testing and integration to happen at Northrop Grumman Corp.
James Webb Space Telescope. The project is working to a launch date. The JWST will Previously, the authors published two single variable cost models based on 19 flight missions. The current paper presents the development of a multi-variable space telescopes cost model. The validity of previously published models are tested.
12th International Conference, DIMVA 2015, Milan, Italy, July 9-10, 2015, Proceedings
Cost estimating relationships which are and are not significant cost drivers are identified. And, interrelationships between variables are explored. The instruments are: SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe, peer through dusty clouds to see AGN environments and stars forming planetary systems at high spatial resolution.
The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with propellant for 10 years of science operations.
The instruments will provide broad- and narrow-band imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy spectral resolution of to 3, across the 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets.
This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works. Phase- space distributions and orbital angular momentum.
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available We review the concept of Wigner distributions to describe the phase- space distributions of quarks in the nucleon, emphasizing the information encoded in these functions about the quark orbital angular momentum. Relation of the runaway avalanche threshold to momentum space topology. The underlying physics responsible for the formation of an avalanche instability due to the generation of secondary electrons is studied. A careful examination of the momentum space topology of the runaway electron population is carried out with an eye toward identifying how qualitative changes in the momentum space of the runaway electrons is correlated with the avalanche threshold.
It is found that the avalanche threshold is tied to the merger of an O and X point in the momentum space of the primary runaway electron population. Such a change of the momentum space topology is shown to be accurately described by a simple analytic model, thus providing a powerful means of determining the avalanche threshold for a range of model assumptions. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system. The major components of the EPS are the W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen NiH2 cell Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging.
On June 13, , after more than 21 years, thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x staffing to staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System.
These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.
Breaking the Confusion Limit. OST will have a background-limited sensitivity for a background 27, times lower than the Herschel background caused by thermal emission from Herschel's warm telescope. For continuum observations the confusion limit in a diffraction-limited survey can be reached in very short integration times at longer far-infrared wavelengths. But the confusion limit can be pierced for both the nearest and the farthest objects to be observed by OST. For outer the Solar System the targets' motion across the sky will provide a clear signature in surveys repeated after an interval of days to months.
This will provide a size-frequency distribution of TNOs that is not biased toward high albedo objects. For the distant Universe the first galaxies and the first metals will provide a third dimension of spectral information that can be measured with a long-slit, medium resolution spectrograph.
This will allow 3Dmapping to measure source densities as a function of redshift. The continuum shape associated with sourcesat different redshifts can be derived from correlation analyses of these 3D maps. Fairly large sky areas can be scanned by moving the spacecraft at a constant angular rate perpendicular to the orientation of the long slit of the spectrograph, avoiding the high overhead of step-and-stare surveying with a large space observatory.
A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope , extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists.
This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17, exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.
The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos. Josephson oscillation and self-trapping in momentum space. The Creutz ladder model is studied in the presence of unconventional flux induced by complex tunneling rates along and between the two legs. In the vortex phase, the double-minima band structure is regarded as a double well. By introducing a tunable coupling between the two momentum minima, we demonstrate a phenomenon of Josephson oscillations in momentum space.
The condensate density locked in one of the momentum valleys is referred to as macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The on-site interaction of the lattice provides an effective analogy to the double-well model within the two-mode approximation which allows for a quantitative understanding of the Josephson effect and the self-trapping in momentum space.
The energy- momentum operator in curved space -time. It is argued that the only meaningful geometrical measure of the energy- momentum of states of matter described by a free quantum field theory in a general curved space -time is that provided by a normal ordered energy- momentum operator. The finite expectation values of this operator are contrasted with the conventional renormalized expectation values and it is further argued that the use of renormalization theory is inappropriate in this context.
Coulomb plus strong interaction bound states - momentum space numerical solutions. The levels and widths of hadronic atoms are calculated in momentum space using an inverse algorithm for the eigenvalue problem. The Coulomb singularity is handled by the Lande substraction method. Relativistic, nonlocal, complex hadron-nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vacuum polarization and finite size effects.
Coordinate space wavefunctions are obtained by employing a Fourier Bessel transformation. Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A. Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in , but STIS was successfully repaired in May during Service Mission 4 SM4 allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products.
Cosmology and Reionization. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization EoR.
OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation.
Hadron production at LHC in dipole momentum space. The dipole color approach is the framework that considers the quark-antiquark pair scattering off the target. The rapidity evolution of color dipoles is given by the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov BK equation, for which analytical solutions are not yet known. A good way to explore the asymptotic BK solutions is through the traveling wave method of QCD, that uses a correspondence between the BK evolution equation in momentum space and reaction-diffusion physics.
Using the traveling wave based AGBS model for the dipole amplitude in momentum space , and within the k t -factorization formalism, we describe the LHC data on single inclusive hadron yield for p—p collisions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA estimates that without a servicing mission to replace key components, the Hubble Space Telescope will cease scientific operations in instead of Momentum-space cigar geometry in topological phases.
In this paper, we stress the importance of momentum-space geometry in the understanding of two-dimensional topological phases of matter. We focus, for simplicity, on the gapped boundary of three-dimensional topological insulators in class AII, which are described by a massive Dirac Hamiltonian and characterized by an half-integer Chern number. The gap is induced by introducing a magnetic perturbation, such as an external Zeeman field or a ferromagnet on the surface. The quantum Bures metric acquires a central role in our discussion and identifies a cigar geometry. We first derive the Chern number from the cigar geometry and we then show that the quantum metric can be seen as a solution of two-dimensional non-Abelian BF theory in momentum space.
The gauge connection for this model is associated to the Maxwell algebra, which takes into account the Lorentz symmetries related to the Dirac theory and the momentum-space magnetic translations connected to the magnetic perturbation. The Witten black-hole metric is a solution of this gauge theory and coincides with the Bures metric. This allows us to calculate the corresponding momentum-space entanglement entropy that surprisingly carries information about the real- space conformal field theory describing the defect lines that can be created on the gapped boundary.
Relativistic quantum similarities in atoms in position and momentum spaces. Relativistic effects in both position and momentum spaces have been studied by comparing the relativistic values to the non-relativistic ones. We have used the atomic electron density in both position and momentum spaces obtained within relativistic and non-relativistic numerical-parameterized optimized effective potential approximations. Renormalization group in statistical physics - momentum and real spaces. Two variants of the renormalization group approach in statistical physics are considered, the renormalization group in the momentum and the renormalization group in the real spaces.
Common properties of these methods and their differences are cleared up. A simple model for investigating the crossover between different universality classes is suggested. Coordinate, Momentum and Dispersion operators in Phase space representation. The aim of this paper is to present a study on the representations of coordinate, momentum and dispersion operators in the framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works.
We begin in the introduction section with a recall about the concept of representation of operators on wave function spaces. Then, we show that in the case of the phase space representation the coordinate and momentum operators can be represented either with differential operators or with matrices. The explicit expressions of both the differential operators and matrices representations are established.
Multidimensional generalization of the obtained results are performed and phase space representation of dispersion operators are given. Database architectures for Space Telescope Science Institute. At STScI nearly all large applications require database support. A general purpose architecture has been developed and is in use that relies upon an extended client-server paradigm. Processing is in general distributed across three processes, each of which generally resides on its own processor. Database queries are evaluated on one such process, called the DBMS server.
The DBMS server software is provided by a database vendor. The application issues database queries and is called the application client. This server accepts generic query requests from the application and converts them into the specific requirements of the DBMS server. In addition, it accepts query results from the DBMS server and passes them back to the application.
This architecture is currently in use for some major STScI applications, including the ground support system. We are currently investigating means of providing ad hoc query support to users through the above architecture. Such support is critical for providing flexible user interface capabilities. The Universal Relation advocated by Ullman, Kernighan, and others appears to be promising.
In this approach, the user sees the entire database as a single table, thereby freeing the user from needing to understand the detailed schema. A software layer provides the translation between the user and detailed schema views of the database. However, many subtle issues arise in making this transformation. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3, times wider than our solar system.
The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5, light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.
Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: NASA, H.
Ford JHU , G. Grism and immersion grating for space telescope. The grism is a versatile dispersion element for an astronomical instrument ranging from ultraviolet to infrared. Major benefit of using a grism in a space application, instead of a reflection grating, is the size reduction of optical system because collimator and following optical elements could locate near by the grism. The surface relief SR grism is consisted a transmission grating and a prism, vertex angle of which is adjusted to redirect the diffracted beam straight along the direct vision direction at a specific order and wavelength.
The volume phase holographic VPH grism consists a thick VPH grating sandwiched between two prisms, as specific order and wavelength is aligned the direct vision direction. The VPH grating inheres ideal diffraction efficiency on a higher dispersion application. On the other hand, the SR grating could achieve high diffraction efficiency on a lower dispersion application.
We propose "Quasi-Bragg grism" for a high dispersion spectroscopy with wide wavelength range. The prototype immersion gratings for the mid-InfraRed High dispersion Spectrograph IRHS are successfully fabricated by a nano-precision machine and grinding cup of cast iron with electrolytic dressing method. Kinematics of a relativistic particle with de Sitter momentum space. We discuss kinematical properties of a free relativistic particle with deformed phase space in which momentum space is given by a submanifold of de Sitter space.
We provide a detailed derivation of the action, Hamiltonian structure and equations of motion for such a free particle. We study the action of deformed relativistic symmetries on the phase space and derive explicit formulae for the action of the deformed Poincare group. Finally we provide a discussion on parametrization of the particle worldlines stressing analogies and differences with ordinary relativistic kinematics. Probing electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in Momentum Space. Orbital imaging experiments employing Electron Momentum Spectroscopy are subject to many complications, such as distorted wave effects, conformational mobility in the electronic ground state, ultra-fast nuclear dynamics in the final state, or a dispersion of the ionization intensity over electronically excited shake-up configurations of the cation.
The purpose of the present contribution is to illustrate how a proper treatment of these complications enables us to probe in momentum space the consequences of electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in neutral and cationic states. Space telescopes capturing the rays of the electromagnetic spectrum. This book describes the instruments themselves and what they were designed to discover about the Solar System and distant stars. Exactly how these telescopes were built and launched and the data they provided is explored.
Only certain kinds of radiation can penetrate our planet's atmosphere, which limits what we can observe. But with space telescopes all this changed. We now have the means to "see" beyond Earth using ultraviolet, microwave, and infrared rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In this book we meet the pioneers and the telescopes that were built around their ideas. This book looks at space telescopes not simply chronologically but also in order of the electromagnetic spectrum, making it possible to understand better why they were made.
Feinber, Lee D. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests. Payload maintenance cost model for the space telescope.
An optimum maintenance cost model for the space telescope for a fifteen year mission cycle was developed. Various documents and subsequent updates of failure rates and configurations were made. The reliability of the space telescope for one year, two and one half years, and five years were determined using the failure rates and configurations.
The failure rates and configurations were also used in the maintenance simulation computer model which simulate the failure patterns for the fifteen year mission life of the space telescope. Cost algorithms associated with the maintenance options as indicated by the failure patterns were developed and integrated into the model. On the energy- momentum tensor in Moyal space. We study the properties of the energy- momentum tensor of gauge fields coupled to matter in non-commutative Moyal space. In general, the non-commutativity affects the usual conservation law of the tensor as well as its transformation properties gauge covariance instead of gauge invariance.
It is well known that the conservation of the energy- momentum tensor can be achieved by a redefinition involving another star-product. Furthermore, for a pure gauge theory it is always possible to define a gauge invariant energy- momentum tensor by means of a Wilson line. We show that the last two procedures are incompatible with each other if couplings of gauge fields to matter fields scalars or fermions are considered: The gauge invariant tensor constructed via Wilson line does not allow for a redefinition assuring its conservation, and vice versa the introduction of another star-product does not allow for gauge invariance by means of a Wilson line.
Momentum -subtraction renormalization techniques in curved space -time. Momentum -subtraction techniques, specifically BPHZ and Zimmermann's Normal Product algorithm, are introduced as useful tools in the study of quantum field theories in the presence of background fields. In a model of a self-interacting massive scalar field, conformally coupled to a general asymptotically-flat curved space -time with a trivial topology, momentum -subtractions are shown to respect invariance under general coordinate transformations.
As an illustration, general expressions for the trace anomalies are derived, and checked by explicit evaluation of the purely gravitational contributions in the free field theory limit. Furthermore, the trace of the renormalized energy- momentum tensor is shown to vanish at the Gell-Mann Low eigenvalue as it should. Parton self-energies for general momentum-space anisotropy. We introduce an efficient general method for calculating the self-energies, collective modes, and dispersion relations of quarks and gluons in a momentum -anisotropic high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.
The method introduced is applicable to the most general classes of deformed anisotropic momentum distributions and the resulting self-energies are expressed in terms of a series of hypergeometric basis functions which are valid in the entire complex phase-velocity plane. Comparing to direct numerical integration of the self-energies, the proposed method is orders of magnitude faster and provides results with similar or better accuracy. To extend previous studies and demonstrate the application of the proposed method, we present numerical results for the parton self-energies and dispersion relations of partonic collective excitations for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy.
Finally, we also present, for the first time, the gluon unstable mode growth rate for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy. Basso, E. Resummation of transverse momentum distributions in distribution space. Differential spectra in observables that resolve additional soft or collinear QCD emissions exhibit Sudakov double logarithms in the form of logarithmic plus distributions. The all-order logarithmic structure of such distributions is often fully encoded in differential equations, so-called renormalization group evolution equations.
We introduce a well-defined technique of distributional scale setting, which allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms when solving these differential equations. In particular, this allows one through canonical scale choices to minimize logarithmic contributions in the boundary terms of the solution, and to obtain the full distributional logarithmic structure from the solution's evolution kernel directly in distribution space. The resummation accuracy is then solely determined by the perturbative expansion of the associated anomalous dimensions.
The Morse oscillator in position space , momentum space , and phase space. We present a unified description of the position- space wave functions, the momentum-space wave functions, and the phase- space Wigner functions for the bound states of a Morse oscillator. By comparing with the functions for the harmonic oscillator the effects of anharmonicity are visualized Analytical expressions for the wave functions and the phase space functions are given, and it is demonstrated how a numerical problem arising from the summation of an alternating series in evaluating Laguerre functions can be circumvented.
The method is applicable also for other problems where Laguerre The wave and phase space functions are displayed in a series of curves and contour diagrams. An Appendix discusses the calculation of the modified Bessel functions of real, positive argument and complex order, which is required for calculating the phase space functions This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point.
The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory. Lattice study of the gluon propagator in momentum space. Department of Physics, Washington University, St. We evaluate the gluon propagator both in time at zero three- momentum and in momentum space. The momentum space propagator [ital G] [ital k] provides further evidence for mass generation.
Momentum space dipole amplitude for DIS and inclusive hadron production. The single inclusive hadron production is modeled through the color glass condensate, which uses the quark and gluon condensate amplitudes in momentum space. The AGBS model is also a momentum space model based on the asymptotic solutions of the BK equation, although a different definition of the Fourier transform is used. More Guidelines Than Rules: May I? Back Matter Pages The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 75 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on attacks, attack detection, binary analysis and mobile malware protection, social networks and large-scale attacks, Web and mobile security, and provenance and data sharing.
Anomaly detection Application security Bootkits Cloud computing Denial-of-service attacks Domain-specific privacy Domain-specific security Information flow control Intrusion detection Malware mitigation Privacy-preserving protocols Reverse engineering Security and privacy Security in hardware Social engineering attacks Social networks Software security System security Web application security.
Editors and affiliations. Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg Sweden 2. Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg Sweden 3. Politecnico di Milano Milan Italy. Bibliographic information DOI https: Buy options.